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how many pecan nut trees per hectare

A mature pecan orchard can yield from 1,200 to 2,000 pounds of nuts per acre. We recommend 12x6m which equates to 130 trees per hectare. The tree is a Type-1 pollinator and requires Type-2 pecan trees with which to pollinate. Like most areas of the Southwest, these States are suffering from years of drought, which has had an impact on Pecan production - down 50% from just 10 years ago. We plant approximately 80% Wichita (yields well); 10 -15% Pawnee, Navaho, Western Schley and Ukulinga (pollinators of Wichita) and 5% Choctaw (wonderful nut but strong alternate bearer which is pollinated by Wichita). China has the biggest population in the world and many are becoming more affluent and buy this product. 3. We have plantations with 500 trees/ ha; 1000 trees/ ha as well as 250 trees/ha and each of these requires different management. Walnut trees are grown for both nuts and timber. This increase equates to a 50% improvement in sale price. At a plantation density of 200 trees per hectare, this is equivalent to a yield of 14 kg/tree of nut-in-shell (NIS). This excludes any implements. Shane says that some farmers plant at a higher density initially, and then thin out once the trees have reached full maturity, which allows greater yield in the years before the trees reach full maturity. Sunlight availability and nut production after thinning of pecan trees (Carya illinoensis K. Koch) The pecan tree industry is still in the honeymoon phase. The tree grows to a mature height of 75 to 100 feet. It places the trees in the same row closer to each other and leaves enough space between rows. After multiplying 50 X 3, we have $150 which is the profit. The alluvial soils along rivers are excellent for pecan nut trees, provided the permanent water level is at least 5m or more below the soil surface to ensure good drainage. Any commodity has its’ boom and bust cycles but if you are producing top quality nuts, you should not be shaken out when the cycle goes bust. This is based on an orchard of 312 trees per hectare, equating to a per tree cost of approximately $10 to $12. HOW FREQUENTLY MUST WE FOLIAR SPRAY OUR TREES? This is very much a case of ‘choose your poison’. Mature trees o Standard annual recommendation is 13 000 to 14 000 Meterᵌ per hectare o Most of the water will be used in the growing season (225 days) o To ensure economic production of quality pecan nuts, irrigation must prevent water stress o Over irrigation and waterlogging depletes soils of oxygen and is just as detrimental as drought Loss of pecan trees from storms, equipment damage, road intrusion, etc. F.S. We do not put anything into the planting holes and all soil amendments, eg. We regard this as an essential part of our management and seriously suggest that you do the same. In a typical Pecan grove, about 80 Pecan trees are planted per acre. Anything above this cultivar index is considered better and more valuable, while any cultivar with an index below 100 is considered less desirable, and is deemed less valuable, than the Choctaw cultivar. 7. Ensure that two or more pecan varieties are growing within a couple hundred yards or less of each other for proper pollination and nut size. (Bruce Wood). WHAT MUST WE PUT INTO THE PLANTING HOLES AT THE TIME OF PLANTING? A mature pecan tree requires nearly 34,000 gallons of water per year. After orchard establishment, it could cost up to R25 000 per hectare per year for general running costs (weeding, fertilising and irrigation). However to increase their profitability in early years interplanting is advisable. Table 2. We recommend 12x6m which equates to 130 trees per hectare. The total area planted to pecan trees is estimated at 88,000 hectares (Ha) for MY2010/11 and the ... kilograms per hectare over the past two years. Gunter Hollenbach explains. Mr. Gunther Hollenbach in the pecan nut orchard of Mr. Kobus du Plessis in the Magogong district near Hartswater in South Africa. Trees per acre at a given spacing can be calculated from the following equation: Trees per acre = 43,560 / Ft. between trees in row X Ft. between rows. Pecan trees have a very long life span and can attain a great size. ’Creek’ pecan trees yield about 54 nuts per lb. As a pecan grower, we prefer pollinators to be planted in addition to the main type of tree. Pecan nut cultivar values In orchard surveys conducted in Arizona, pecan production was greatest in trees growing in sandy loam soils. Many farmers regard pecan nuts as a favourable long-term investment. A planting density of 10x10m is very popular (100 trees per hectare). (Source: Joubert, PH, 2008, The Cultivation of Pecan Nuts). The tap root has to … Pests and diseases: Scab (Cladosporium cayigenium) is the main disease affecting pecan nuts. A mature pecan orchard can yield from 1,200 to 2,000 pounds of nuts per acre. The bigger the hole, the more management is required to align the trees in their rows. A deciduous tree that can grow to more than 130 feet tall and spread over 75 feet wide, it is closely related to the hickory and walnut nut-bearing trees. 1200 mm water/ hectare (including rain). In our nurseries we have found that 40% shade-netting (this is not practical in a plantation) reduces our water usage by about 50%. This increase equates to a 50% improvement in sale price. It’s 12 years to full production.” “And the grower will spend from $4,000 to $6,000 per acre, including an irrigation system, in the interim,” Locke says. Improved growth rate: To calculate the net profit, we deduct $63 (cost of product) from $150 (total profit) which is a net profit of $87. Before pecan nut production can be established, farmers… Area Suitability, Two other pests that influence the value of a pecan orchard are the pecan stem borer and the bark borer. You should use continuous logging probes to gauge how much water is required by the trees in your orchard. In an interview with Farmer’s Weekly in January 2011, Philip Antrobus, pecan nut farmer and then chairperson of the SA Pecan Nut Producers’ Association (SAPPA), said that pecan nut production was a lucrative industry. As more and more trees are planted, our pests are going to become more diversified and numerous. South Africa produces approximately 5% of the worlds’ pecans. Limit your risks and ensure that the high establishment costs reap rewards. The planting holes should be big enough to accommodate the root system. ‘Because no two farms or orchards are identical, it is risky to conclude that there is a single “right way” in which orchards are to be managed. Similarly, some crop cultivars are more valuable than others, and this should be considered when planting an orchard. However, most pecans are produced in the Northern Hemisphere. Using this spacing, you can plant 280 trees per hectare. If you have calculated 20 foot spacing between rows then you would have 10 rows of trees… This includes costs involved in fertilising, irrigating (if required), mulching, pest, disease and weed control, tree training, machinery operating costs and labour. HOW MUCH WATER DO PECAN TREES REQUIRE. Parts of South Africa have the world’s best climate for growing pecan nuts (Carya illinoinensis). At full maturity, tree spacing may require densities of 7 trees per acre after thinning. 10. often necessitates that replacement values be calculated. Generally, pecan nut trees are planted according to the following space indices: The number of plants missing in an orchard influences the value of the orchard. and have a moderate scab resistance. © 2020 Farmer's Weekly Magazine | Caxton Magazines Digital |, What to look for when buying beef breeding stock, Top score for SA Wagyu x Angus carcass on Japanese scale, Growing garlic: a golden opportunity for SA farmers, Young pig farmer shares lessons learnt during her first five years, Essential oils: a balm for emerging farmers, Optimism as SA’s late table grape crop is rushed to markets, Agriculture continues its positive contribution to GDP. It is a fungal disease, curbed by planting resistant cultivars and avoiding areas with a humidity above 50% for long periods. Also, take into consideration that as soon as trees start bearing you will need a dehusker and drying bins for the nuts. “Some land owners are putting in dryland pecans and production costs are considerably less, but so is production, 1,000 to … No restricting layers should be present in the top 3m of soil. 5. The crop can handle frost, as the cold ensures the tree goes into complete dormancy, which ensures even growth in spring. The pecan nuts produced in our area are of world class quality. HOW MUST WE PREPARE THE PLANTING HOLES? Climate: This is probably the single most important factor that determines whether pecan nut trees can produce well. China has become a major consumer of pecan nuts. 18K views View 63 Upvoters Who knows? South Africa is well-suited for pecan nut production, but certain factors will determine the value of your orchard. Staniland of Willowfontein, Pietermaritzburg, probably imported the first grafted trees … The pecan tree has a long, strong tap-root system. Let's say you go with a tight 20 X 20' spacing, meaning your rows are 20' apart and within those rows the trees are also 20' apart. If you are growing a pecan orchard, you will typically need 12-48 trees per acre and a long term commitment. China has become the biggest importer of South African pecan nuts. Initial planting may be on the square system 7.5m x 7.5m or 175 trees per hectare. Clay content should preferably not exceed 35%, but a content of more than 10% is preferred. Eg. Alternate diagonal rows are removed at the first thinning and then alternate rows for the second thinning. With years of experience, at Waltree nursery we recommend 7 x 5 meters spacing for Chandler walnut trees. The following excerpt from Lyndon Storer’s presentation, ‘The story of an African pecan nut farm’ presented on 23 October, 2015 in Bloemfontein at the SAIV (SA Institute of Valuers) Central Branch agri seminar, discusses some of these factors. Both can be controlled by chemical spraying directly in the infested area and, in the case of partly bored stems, by a parasitic wasp. ’Creek’ nuts are long, narrow and elliptical in shape. The main ingredients needed by pecan trees in Arizona include adequate space, water, nitrogen, zinc and more water. Pecans are planted at a spacing of 10m x 10m, resulting in 100 trees/ha at a cost of about R28 000/ha for the trees. Neither do they like prolonged wetness; pecans perform best in well-drained soils. Similarly, according to Pecans SA, consumption has more than doubled since 2007, with 90% of the country’s pecans exported to China. They are not a particularly drought tolerant species {in Arizona and New Mexico pecans use approximately 42 inches of water per season}. Pecan production is widespread across South Africa, but orchards are increasingly being established in the drier Northern Cape. 2. This appears to be a marketing advantage for South African producers. We have plantations with 500 trees/ ha; 1000 trees/ ha as well as 250 trees/ha and each of these requires different management. Botanically, the pecan tree (Carya illinoinensis) is a member of the Juglandaceae – or Walnut – family of trees and bushes. At around 312 trees per hectare, that should deliver R374,400 per hectare. Especially in places where farmland is expensive, high and even very high planting density (120-272 trees per ha or 48-109 trees per acre) can be a good choice in pecan orchards-but only if there is a good plan in place to manage tree crowding and self-shading that will … Mature pecan orchards require a lot of water and we estimate it to be the same amount of water as what you would use for double cropping maize and wheat –. Soil: Pecan nut trees do well in a well-drained, deep soil with a medium texture. As the oldest continually operating nursery in the country, we've curated a time-tested collection of over 300 unique varieties of fruit trees, nut trees … The pecan-nut tree is deciduous and can therefore only be transplanted during the winter. Once you have calculated the distance between trees and distance between rows, you can then calculate how many rows of trees you would have for an acre. The first foliar sprays are done as soon as the buds break and we continue until the trees go dormant. This planting scheme is called 'hedgerow'. Or… This will allow 109 trees per … IS THE MARKET FOR PECANS NOT GOING TO BECOME SATURATED? This places the product in the top category, resulting in the farmer being paid R11.50 more per kg, equal to a financial gain to the farmer per tree of around R290, adding up to R29,000 per hectare. The nuts are rich in vitamins, carbohydrates and nut oil. The pecan nut industry continues to expand, as indicated by SAPPA’s statistics, with 327 900 trees planted in 2013, 341 000 trees planted in 2014 and 340 000 trees planted in 2015 (source: www.sappa.za.org). Adding Fruit to Your Homestead For over 200 years, Stark Bro's Nursery has been helping homesteaders across America live more self-sufficient lifestyles. Pecan trees are valuable for shade, landscape aesthetics, and nut production. We have encountered yellow aphids, stinkbugs, white grubs (nursery trees), Christmas beetles (foliage in December – especially on Pawnee trees), snout beetles (Cape nursery) and fungal disease (Alternaria). Pecan nuts in South Africa. Planting spacing We spray the trees every 7 – 10 days during the growing season. Pecans are healthy additions to any diet and populations, world-wide, are becoming more health conscious and are turning to nuts as a source of nourishment. Proper A planting density of 10x10m is very popular (100 trees per hectare). It may take 10 years before a grower gets to half production. They say othershave compared pecans to soybeans, even with the increased price for soybeans. Given the right climate and sufficient water, an acre can produce about 5,000 pounds of Pecans per acre. A common formula for commercial groves in the southeastern United States is to plant pecan trees in a square grid with the trees each 30-40 feet apart. This will result in the strengthening of the branch, inhibit further lengthening and promote side shoots. Nursery trees. Our attitude to foliar sprays has changed from ‘maybe we should’ to ‘this MUST get done’. Mulches, cover crops, application (drip/ micro/ flood irrigation) and organic material all have a major role to play and can improve your water requirements dramatically. A macadamia tree gives a farmer around 100kg of the nuts per season and a tonne of dehusked nuts sells for at least $2 000. The holes can be made using a TLB, augers or spades. That is a yield of R1,200 per tree – at a minimum. … Very clayish or sandy soils have limitations with respect to water supply. While pecan trees like dry conditions, they also require wet roots, and prefer short, cold winters and long, hot summers. It’s typically a one person job. “Income harvested from two pecan nut trees is equivalent to that from 1t of maize,” he was quoted as saying. 2. This allows 24 trees per acre, but shading is limited between rows as the trees mature. An orchard with a poor plant population cannot have the same value as an orchard with an almost complete tree population. Our viewpoint is that the future for pecans is very optimistic. NEVER use raw manure on your trees because of salinity, hygiene and energy issues. The bigger holes could possibly have an advantage for the developing root. A walnut orchard can take a few years to come into full production, but then produces up to 6,000 pounds per acre. The table alongside lists the different pecan nut cultivars. Generally, pecan nut trees are planted according to the following space indices: 10m x 5 m, which equals 200 trees/ha; 8m x 5 m, which equals 250 trees/ha; 6m x 6 m, which equals 277 trees/ ha. The disease can also be kept under control with a fungicide spray programme. Small trees require about 10% of this amount of water. The South African market for pecan nuts is sadly still under-developed. A yield target of 2.8 tonnes of raw nuts per hectare with a kernel recovery of 30% is required to achieve satisfactory returns. Lime or gypsum are put on the top of the ground once the tree has been planted. The size of the Pecan Nuts is also dramatically better. Do black walnut trees bear fruit every year? The size of the pecan nuts is also dramatically better. While pecans may seem like a viable business venture on which to embark, one should consider that, as with all crops, there are various factors that determine the value of the plantation. Crop type influences the value of an orchard, as some crops are worth more than others (vineyards, for example, are worth more than pecan nut orchards in certain areas, such as Paarl, Franschhoek and Stellenbosch) and cannot be compared with the specific areas in which pecans will be produced. So we can say that a pecan tree can produce $87 in 7 years. Table 1. As the trees grow bigger, the grove will be thinned, and mature groves will end up with trees on 80 foot grids, which translates to seven … Improved growth rate: With annual average yields of 40 to 50 pounds per tree, this amounts to nearly 680 to 850 gallons of water per pound of nuts, depending on soil type. This is basically just the pinching the growth point of the branch off, i.e. South Africa is currently one of the biggest producers of macadamia nuts globally with 19 500 hectares across Limpopo, Mpumalanga and KwaZulu-Natal producing over 50 000 tonnes per year. if your potential scaffold branches have got a little long relative to the central leader, you will pinch the growth point of the scaffold. “But it’s a long-term investment. WHAT ARE THE MOST COMMON PESTS WITH REGARDS TO PECANS? “They still come out ahead with pecans,” Rohla says. Pecan trees need 285 days a year for growing, with warm nights. If you subtracted production costs – for irrigation and fertiliser - of around R25,000 per hectare per year, that is still a lot of money. The number of plants missing in an orchard influences the value of the orchard. The best results are obtained when establishing orchards with trees planted during July and August. We use either 250mm or 500mm auger bits to prepare the planting holes and afterwards square these using spades. With the expansion of the industry, SA growers are now choosing to grow the right cultivars for the right reasons. This places the product in the top category, resulting in the farmer being paid R11.50 more per kg, equal to a financial gain to the farmer per tree of around R290, adding up to R29,000 per hectare. The standard cultivar, Choctaw, has an index of 100. The first pecan-nut trees were imported into South Africa by one Wilkinson, a Natal nurseryman, towards the end of the last century. A young tree doesn't have many branches, so you'll need a lot of trees to cover an acre of land. To achieve this, you'll need a lot of young trees. Markets, harvesting, susceptibility to scab, wind damage, region to be planted in and nursery availability are but some of the factors which have a bearing on your decision of varieties to be planted. 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