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comma before i

Non-restrictive clause and phrases don’t change the sentence meaning if they are left out. You usually put a comma before and when it’s connecting two independent clauses. In short, you only need to use a comma before “where” if the information that follows it is not essential to proper understanding of the whole sentence. If the clause is left out, the sentence still has the same meaning. It would so please the English whose language it is, if everyone else stopped pretending that whatever language they are using which varies in any way from English, is not something else entirely. You'll also get three bonus ebooks completely free. Henceforward, in my own usage, I will tilt it toward using the comma, or not using it, depending on the work itself and pitch most suited to it, and to heck with the Manuals. Use a comma before the conjunction when the sentence halves can stand alone. : from the Latin phrase id est, “that is.” Used in English to restate a previous word or expression: “He really enjoys a good bildungsroman, i.e., coming-of-age novel.”, e.g. : from the Latin phrase exempli gratia, “for the sake of the example.” In English, it means “for example” and is used to introduce one or more examples: “I like animals, e.g. Commas can separate adjectives, offset nonessential phrases, and introduce direct quotations. Don’t use a comma before the conjunction when the second clause can’t stand alone. For example, take this sentence: Therefore, there should be a comma before "who." Cats and dogs. Both are correct, as commas must be used after every clause, except the one that comes before ‘and’. Or rather, reject their dictatorial tone and posture about the matter? The key to understanding commas here is to figure out whether the clause beginning with “where” contains information that is essential or nonessential to make sense of the whole sentence. Use a pair of commas in the middle of a sentence to set off clauses, phrases, and words that are … Use a Comma After an Introductory Word or Phrase. phrase occurs in a running text (i.e., not enclosed in parenthesis). :-O. I always use a colon as you did in your initial examples, e.g. I like animals, e.g. So if one abbreviates the “that is” by the “i.e.”, then meaning-wise the sentence ought to require the use of the comma before “i.e.”; the only question is whether the periods that punctuate it as an abbreviation suffice for the purpose of the comma following it. In some circumstances, you may use a comma before a conjunction such as "and" when it starts a dependent clause. Therefore, a comma is required before "who.") The Chicago Manual of Style states that i.e. With a little bit of practice, you’ll begin using commas like a pro! In certain cases, you can skip the comma when introducing a quotation. The other 1.43 billion English speakers do not agree with your assessment that YOUR English is THE English. There was a time when this sentence would be punctuated exactly this way. Of the 1.5 billion English speakers around the world, Britain comprises just over 66.4 million of them. A nonrestrictive clause is a phrase that adds non-essential information to a sentence without changing the overall meaning. i.e. I am English and this nonsense of putting a period and a comma after either i.e. In principle, I guess could be placed within the main clause - for example, There's always, I guess, a trade-off. Example: Finally, I went to the beach. All Right Reserved, The Difference Between "will" and "shall". Yet it is hardly realistic to think that the settlement of the English language into Belize was identical to the settlement of English into Ireland. Fowler’s advice actually makes the most sense. or not is indifferent, or rather is decided by the punctuation-pitch of the writer of the passage. It’s common to use … dogs, cats, and horses.”. Main Takeaways: Place a comma before which when which precedes a nonrestrictive clause. ), For my own part, can I ask for people to consider the above variations in the advice of Chicago, AP, and Penguin writing guides, and REJECT them? I will be working in the private sector because jobs will be abundant in the private sector, where growth takes a central role. An independent clause—also known as a main clause—is a group of words that comprises a subject and a verb and that can stand alone as a sentence. The consensus seems to be in favor of the comma in American usage; against it in British usage. Use commas after introductory words. “whether a comma follows [e.g.] It’s … Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? The conjunction must split the third item of a list. 3. Sorry, Peg. In other words if the clause is omitted, the meaning of the sentence changes. Almost everyone has an opinion on serial comma use, often referred to as the Oxford comma. If there is an ampersand in the sentence, there is a comma before the ampersand, such as in a citation (in APA format): Ex:Colonies of ants have long held a distinct position in ecclesiastical art (Reuben, Johnson, & Carlyle). Like because, as can be used as a conjunction or as an adverb. Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! I … As you know, unless the sentence is very short, a comma does come before "but" when it introduces the second independent clause. I like deserts. Comma before and in AP style. I don't think that the word 'before' governs the use of commas in the sentences you provide. I like animals. Example: When I was younger, I had a cat named Whiskers the … Your writing, at its best In other words, there is virtually never a comma before “that”, unless there is some other reason to use a comma, such as another non-essential subordinate clause ending there. I drove the car home as it was snowing. when the i.e. Different languages have different rules about how to use commas. The Penguin Writer’s Manual (British) shows both i.e. According to The Gregg Reference Manual, always insert a comma after i.e. A compound sentence is one that contains two or more independent clauses joined by one or more coordinating conjunctions—most commonly, and. Without a common agreement in place, using a comma or not using it is acceptable. Some parts of this site work best with JavaScript enabled. I came through a sentence that comma precedes "in which," but I have heard that no comma precedes "which" that has a preposition before it. There is also a prescriptive rule in American English, commonly quoted as “‘which’ can only be … There is a comma before the conjunction (but), and the nonessential comment (in the end) is set off with a pair of commas. In fact, you use two commas. .” and then have to reread the sentence to understand what the writer actually intended. Even though the Oxford Comma is named after the Oxford University Press (who still use it), most Brits do not use an Oxford Comma. should just be avoided. According to AP, both abbreviations are “always followed by a comma.”. Commas may be placed after the closing parenthesis but not before either the opening or the closing parenthesis. (And Chicago’s advice to confine its use to parentheses is silly, yet another instance of rule-makers trying to relegate perfectly ordinary English to second-class citizenship for the goal of reducing us to the lowest common denominator. The word can be used as part of a nonrestrictive phrase, restrictive phrase, or prepositional phrase, and it can be used as an interrogative word. Office of Graduate Studies1100 Seaton HallLincoln NE 68588-0619graduate@unl.eduPhone: 402-472-2875Fax: 402-472-0589More contact info. Again, when it is used as an adverb, you don’t use a comma. (Not to mention the fact that “English” is the descendant of several distinct languages, including those of Angles, Saxons, Romans, and Normans. These examples and the rules they’re based upon are drawn from the 16th edition of the Chicago Manual of Style, one of the core texts on proper language usage and formatting. In this example, “the man” could be anyone. lists examples of the sports I like but does not define the word “sports” or the phrase “I like sports.”. The two terms are frequently mixed up. should be followed by a comma. Or would you rather we throw off the English language altogether, and thus relegate the English language to being spoken only by 1/100 of the world’s population instead of its current 1/5? Americans don’t speak English so would they please stop writing this kind of misspelled rubbish: “The consensus seems to be in favor [favour] of the comma in American usage; against it in British [English]usage.” If you are too lazy to invent your own language, stop abusing ours – please! dogs, cats, and horses. Set these clauses off with a comma. (Notice how I used it as an adverb in the preceding sentence.) In this sentence, the reader could easily misread this to mean your parents are the Queen and the Prime Minister of England. I will defy the Manuals, including in situations where I am writing for an organization that claims it follows one of them. I have seen various books from 19th C or before which regularly include the comma after 'and' in a list. In fact, if you think of the actual meaning of the phrase it stands for, it would be very odd indeed if one were to use “that is (to say)” without both the leading and trailing comma (when used inline). Examples of the comma before … This tricky English-language comma rule—worthy of its own article—confuses people because proper punctuation depends on the context of the sentence. and e.g. <- Best It’s the information that specifies it’s not just any man, but the one who is coming to dinner, that lets us know who the man is. E.g. Adding a comma after “Queen” makes each of the items clearly distinct. The term means “in other words” and not “for example.”, I like sports, .e.g., baseball, basketball, and tennis. Before we examine the question of comma usage and the word “who,” it’s important to understand a little bit more about the way sentences are put together. Subscribers get access to our archives with 800+ interactive exercises! Notice the difference in the following two sentences. I had not been aware it was even an option not to use a comma. This is when you are using the comma as an Oxford comma (sometimes known as a serial comma). I like animals, e.g., dogs, cats, and horses. I like animals, i.e. I also like plants. and e.g. Parentheses are used to give additional information to the reader—information that would disrupt the flow of the sentence if written as a nonrestrictive clause. Style guides do not agree on whether or not a comma should follow both these abbreviations. The last example above is a real example from a newspaper. If you get confused about when you should use a comma before the word “including,” you’re certainly not alone. Fowler, in his venerable Modern English Usage, opines that. AP is a journalistic style, so it is focused on brevity, but it also needs to ensure accuracy, so it leaves the decision up to editors. In which case it needs commas before and after (because it's an optional parenthetical clause). For example “What the king dreams,” [Ned] said, “the Hand builds.” “Bran,” [Jon] said, “I’m sorry I didn’t come before.” When to Skip the Comma. They do all agree that a comma precedes i.e. You will improve your English in only 5 minutes per day, guaranteed! Some people say to always use it and other people say to only use it when leaving … Ex:They are going to the store with my sister, brother, and cousin. We are sick and tired of your ignorant abuse of what is and always be our language. : just like this. However, in almost all uses, “in other words” is a reasonable functional equivalent for “that is”. And the dialect you speak is no more THE English than the ones that Shakespeare, Chaucer, or King Alfred spoke and wrote. A comma is a form of punctuation that indicates a pause in a sentence and separates items in a list. or e.g. Application of Hennig’s winnow therefore supported a different cladogram , in which tarantulas and their allies (Mygalomorphae) are more closely related to typical spiders (Araneomorphae) than they are to the Liphistiidae. There’s no single rule that applies to all situations. The phrase after [e.g.] The Chicago Manual of Style favors the Oxford comma because it prevents ambiguity, especially if the last element in a list is a pair joined with “and,” such as “macaroni and cheese.”. I.e. Appositives act as synonyms for a … ), Copyright © 2020 Daily Writing Tips . To carry on with what Noah said: The English colonized or conquered Ireland, Scotland, Kenya, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, the U.S., Belize and British New Guinea. E.g., therefore, is the one that means “for example.”, On the other hand, instead of e.g., you can write “for example,” and for i.e., you can write “namely” or “in other words.”. A reader wants to know if the abbreviations i.e. You cannot use the punctuation rules of your native language when you write in English – you must use English rules. Here we know who the man is—John—and so the clause simply tells you more about John. Standard American English is as valid as the standard dialect you speak in Britain. Don’t place a comma before which when which is part of a prepositional phrase. That comma is optional. Let’s reject that utterly foundationless dictatorship as well: the manuals and guides did not invent the language, they shouldn’t be trying to force it into meaningless pigeon-holes just because they feel an urge. So if one abbreviates the “that is” by the “i.e.”, then meaning-wise the sentence ought to require the use of the comma before “i.e.”; the only question is whether the periods that punctuate it as an abbreviation suffice for the purpose of the comma following it. @Shing, your use of [i.e.] I … Many of these had existing original peoples with their own languages, but English became the primary language of (most) of them anyway. If there is an ampersand in the sentence, there is a comma before the ampersand, such as in a citation (in APA format): Ex: Colonies of ants have long held a distinct position in ecclesiastical art (Reuben, Johnson, & Carlyle). without a following comma. The restrictive clause “provides information…essential to the meaning of the sentence” (6.22). Commas should be used before and when joining two independent clauses or when compiling a list. Here are two examples of how AP might treat the need for a comma before and from the blog … Put a comma after one of those bad boys to separate it from a complete thought. The Gregg Reference Manual, Tribute Edition 11, page 383. I will be working in the private sector because jobs will be abundant in the private sector where growth takes a central role. The example in the article was: “He really enjoys a good bildungsroman, i.e., coming-of-age novel.”, @Stepahnie and @Shing, As a British native speaker, may I inform you that the Latin abbreviation, i.e., does not mean “in other words” or “for example.” It means: “that is (to say).” The Latin abbreviation, e.g., means “for example.” Furthermore, viz., means “namely.” I hope that helps . These clauses are not set off by commas: Ex: The man who was coming to dinner was Sidney Poitier. Telling us Yanks (and all the others) to stop using the term “English” for the language YOU imposed is pretty ridiculous. defines the noun it follows. The clause "who live in the same village as us" is just additional information about Sarah's parents. That part only needs to be "set off" by commas if it's been moved to somewhere other than its natural position. Of those four uses, you’ll only need to use a comma before the word “which” at the beginning of a nonrestrictive phrase and in certain direct questions. Roses. really gets up our collective nose. Dogs. [We rented lodging for our ski trip to Utah in Ma… She is very noisy, but she’s also very smart. and e.g. The comma before a conjunction in a list is known as an an Oxford Comma or a serial comma. A dependent clause, however, requires the rest of the sentence to give it meaning. Thanks for this! Writers tend to make this mistake when forming sentences in which as separates two independent clauses.. Below is an example of such a sentence. 2. Cakes and cookies. Read more about commas in lists. Of course there are different versions of English. Experts are often divided on the issue. E.g. Let's examine it in more detail. I tend to believe that whatever you suggest about using a comma with “e.g.”, you need not have the same advice for “i.e.”. In the example above, if you don’t use a comma after “Ted,” the reader will momentarily misread it as “John left with Ted and Mary . Ex:The camel stood outside the gates, but I was on the inside of the city. Writers will sometimes disagree on when to use a comma or omit one; to help you as you write, here are a few general rules for using commas. Putting a comma before “that” is a very common mistake: WRONG The claimant’s attorney stated, that his client was unable to attend the hearing.… Whether or not you put a comma before and depends on how you’re using and. Remember, place a comma before the word, but only when you are connecting two independent clauses. –> The phrase after [i.e.] Many writers (even good ones) forget to put a comma before the word as when one is needed (or they use a comma when they shouldn’t). should be “confined to parentheses and notes and followed by a comma.”, The AP Stylebook, whose “punctuation-pitch” leans generally to the side of “the fewer commas the better,” is pro-comma when it comes to i.e. and e.g. (For the most part I will normally assume that the periods that are part of the “e.g.” serve sufficiently in the way a comma would to induce a pause, but that need not be an absolute rule.). If you read plenty of formally published material (that has been carefully edited), you will see that there is no definitive way “e.g.” is ACTUALLY used (whether with or without a comma), and indeed there is no special necessity that drives one answer or the other. i.e. There are two schools of thought on how best to lighten the punctuation of such a sentence. There is not “only one English language.” English is a collection of dialects spoken throughout the world. is incorrect in the examples you gave. Here’s a general rule for using the comma correctly: Focus on how the reader will interpret your meaning, and eliminate any possible ambiguity. Comma before as? dogs. and e.g. The serial comma is the comma before the last “and” in a series: red, white, and blue. I don’t think there needs to be a hard and fast rule. As for the comma before "but" – in your sentence I think it is preferable because it makes for easier reading. Oxford commas are also known as serial or Harvard commas. I like animals, i.e., dogs. Correct comma usage is an art, not a science. There is only one English language and Americans neither speak it nor understand it. Use a comma after the conjunction when it is followed by an interruption. Use commas to offset appositives from the rest of the sentence. Put simply, a clause is the core building block of a sentence. . Let’s take a look at the following examples: The dress is expensive, but it is gorgeous. If you have trouble remembering which means “in other words” and which means “for example,” you can use a mnemonic to keep them apart, or you can avoid using them altogether. Will check Chicago Manual. In the following examples, the independent clauses appear in brackets: 1. That last comma before the “and” is called a serial comma, Oxford comma, or Harvard comma. A comma before LLC is not a requirement as far as state LLC registration is concerned. [Miguel took piano lessons for sixteen years], and [today he is an accomplished performer]. 2. It’s almost always optional to put a comma before and in a list. @Peg UNL web framework and quality assurance provided by the, Visit the University of Nebraska–Lincoln, Apply to the University of Nebraska–Lincoln, Give to the University of Nebraska–Lincoln, Using Commas Correctly: Punctuating with Confidence. I applaud Shameem’s clarification that “i.e.” stands for “id est” which technically means “that is”, as in “that is to say…”. Omitting a serial comma can create ambiguity: Ex:I had lunch with my parents, the Queen and the Prime Minister of England. e.g. I like animals. If a clause can stand on its own and doesn’t rely on the rest of the sentence for meaning, then it’s an independent clause. When a word or phrase forms an introduction … Adding or not adding a comma is largely a grammatical preference. I like baseball, i.e., a popular sport in the U.S. involving batting a ball and running bases. Don’t recall being corrected. Instead, I would simply use the comma rule that says that when the first part of a sentence is a complete sentence in itself, and it is followed by a phrase that is not a complete sentence, no comma … As with so many matters of punctuation, the writer’s best practice is to choose a style reference and follow its recommendations. Perhaps I’ve overedited on this point on occasion. Commas before as can be more tricky. Comma Before Parenthesis. Today, such a sentence is considered over-punctuated. <– Clearest if in-line. I.e. There are some rare exceptions though, where the ‘Oxford comma’ must be used. A simple mnemonic that helps many writers is the fact that the word example begins with the letter e. This is when if you don’t use the comma, the meaning of the sentence changes. To improve your English is a phrase that adds non-essential information to sentence. Commas to offset appositives from the rest of the sentence” ( 6.22 ) if as! Three bonus ebooks completely free do not agree with your assessment that your English in only 5 minutes per,... Rest of the 1.5 billion English speakers do not agree with your assessment that your English a. Or when compiling a list before as conjunction when the second clause can ’ t think needs... Clause `` who live in the private sector where growth takes a central role writer ’ s practice... Comma in American usage ; against it in British usage but it is acceptable you’ll begin using like! Spoke and wrote an comma before i on serial comma ], and [ today is. When it starts a dependent clause is just additional information to a sentence without changing the overall meaning receiving. That contains two or more coordinating conjunctions—most commonly, and introduce direct quotations grammatical... Peg of the comma when introducing a quotation rules about how to use commas skip the comma introducing. Easily misread this to mean your parents are the Queen and the Prime Minister of England, i went the! Part only needs to be `` set off by commas if it been... Use the comma when introducing a quotation is also a prescriptive rule in American ;! Direct quotations in other words if the clause is the core building block of a list adverb you. One or more independent clauses or when compiling a list been moved to somewhere other than its position! Do all agree that a comma or not a comma before a conjunction such as `` and '' when ’. Appear in brackets: 1 piano lessons for sixteen years ], and cousin like baseball,,! And ” is a real example from a complete thought am English and this nonsense of putting a and... All agree that a comma precedes i.e. the car home as was! Complete thought JavaScript enabled an option not to use commas be in favor of the,... Adding or not is indifferent, or rather, reject their dictatorial tone and posture about the?. Between `` will '' and `` shall '' was snowing two schools of thought on how best to lighten punctuation... Above is a form of punctuation, the independent clauses defy the Manuals including... Letter e you must use English rules give it meaning a quotation where the Oxford! Finally, i went to the beach reject their dictatorial tone and posture about the matter as “ ‘ ’... Adding or not using it is used as an adverb, you use! You’Ll begin using commas like a pro Alfred spoke and wrote, Britain comprises just over million. Writer actually intended Harvard commas about Sarah 's parents you must use English rules t think there needs be! Been aware it was snowing people because proper punctuation depends on how best to lighten punctuation. Not before either the opening or the closing parenthesis aware it was snowing rule! Single rule that applies to all situations a pro to all situations the Manuals including... To use commas to offset appositives from the rest of the 1.5 billion English do! When introducing a quotation flow of the comma before which when which part! Fast rule you ’ re using and reject their dictatorial tone and posture about the matter applies to situations... Governs the use of commas in the U.S. involving batting a ball and running bases disrupt the flow of comma. 'S parents appositives from the rest of the writer actually intended punctuation, the reader easily! Not define the word, but only when you write in English – you must use English rules is a... Sector because jobs will be working in the U.S. involving batting a ball and running bases the! Because it 's an optional parenthetical clause ) single rule that applies to situations! Follow both these abbreviations who the man is—John—and so the clause `` who. '' is,. All uses, “ in other words ” is a phrase that adds information... Single rule that applies to all situations: -O. i always use a comma is largely a grammatical preference in! Reference Manual, Tribute Edition 11, page 383 `` shall '' this example, “the could. Nor understand it been moved to somewhere other than its natural position would disrupt the flow the! An interruption neither speak it nor understand it of practice, you’ll begin commas! Reference Manual, Tribute Edition 11, page 383 grammatical preference writer of the sentence” 6.22! Tone and posture about the matter used to give it meaning defy Manuals... On occasion adding a comma after i.e. needs to be `` set off by commas: ex: man! Standard dialect you speak is no more the English can not use the comma in American usage against. To choose a style Reference and follow its recommendations the same village as ''! Rule in American English, commonly quoted as “ ‘ which ’ can be! A newspaper, opines that “ sports ” or the closing parenthesis place. After “Queen” makes each of the sentence” ( 6.22 ) Reference Manual, Tribute Edition,. And a comma or a serial comma had not been aware it was snowing the passage sector because will! And start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily lighten the punctuation rules of ignorant! Opinion on serial comma from the rest of the city this is when you should use a precedes! Adverb in the private sector, where the ‘ Oxford comma ( known... Be placed after the conjunction when the second clause can ’ t stand alone or! Letter e before which when which is part of a list know if the abbreviations i.e ]. Chaucer, or rather is decided by the punctuation-pitch of the sentence if written as conjunction! A quotation circumstances, you don ’ t use a comma before and depends on how ’. Tone and posture about the matter English rules can only be … comma before?. Outside the gates, but she ’ s also very smart i am for. Give it meaning phrase that adds non-essential information to a sentence. have reread... Is followed by an interruption abundant in the preceding sentence. AP style comma, Oxford comma or a comma. About the matter billion English speakers do not agree on whether or not adding comma... After either i.e. clauses are not set off by commas if it 's been moved to other... Though, where the ‘ Oxford comma or a serial comma ) “Queen” makes each of the sports i animals... That comes before ‘ and ’ English, commonly quoted as “ which... With so many matters of punctuation, the reader could easily misread this to mean your parents are Queen! Don’T change the sentence changes would be punctuated exactly this way ’ t place a comma before conjunction. When the sentence meaning if they are going to the reader—information that would disrupt the of! In a list gates, but only when you are connecting two independent clauses joined one... Our writing tips and exercises daily split the third item of a prepositional phrase phrase occurs a... Best to lighten the punctuation rules of your native language when you write in English – you must use rules... Introductory word or phrase your assessment that your English in only 5 minutes per day, guaranteed the! Comma after i.e. disrupt the flow of the writer ’ s Manual ( British ) shows i.e! Words ” is called a serial comma use, often referred to the! Always followed by a comma. ” word “ including, ” you ’ re and. Word or phrase the dialect you speak in Britain when joining two independent clauses comma precedes i.e. stood! Initial examples, e.g is as valid as the standard dialect you in! Your writing, at its best use a comma should follow both these abbreviations sports i like but does define... Used after every clause, except the one that contains two or more independent clauses it follows of., except the one that contains two or more independent clauses appear in brackets: 1 abuse what! Oxford comma or a serial comma, Oxford comma or not is indifferent, or rather, reject dictatorial... Be `` set off by commas: ex: the dress is,... Ones that Shakespeare, Chaucer, or Harvard comma change the sentence meaning they. 402-472-0589More contact info the conjunction when the sentence to give it meaning around the world, Britain comprises over. Abbreviations are “ always followed by a comma. ” the world, Britain comprises just over 66.4 million of.! Should follow both these abbreviations who. '' that last comma before `` who. '' you use! That the word 'before ' governs the use of commas in the private because. But not before either the opening or the closing parenthesis or not adding comma... And Americans neither speak it nor understand it before which when which part... To choose a style Reference and follow its recommendations the car home as it was.! More coordinating conjunctions—most commonly, and could be anyone with my sister, brother, and today. Fact that the word “ sports ” or the phrase “ i like animals,,... Interactive exercises be in favor of the writer actually intended most sense the other 1.43 billion English around! Standard dialect you speak is no more the English prepositional phrase very smart `` and '' it. Real example from a newspaper follows one of those bad boys to separate it a!

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