palmate leaf venation
The 1° and 2° veins branching proximally to the cut are partly supplied by independent xylem conduits from the petiole, which would not have embolized when the midrib was severed (9, 24, 86). We made measurements of the impacts of the treatments on the quantum yield of photosystem II (ΦPSII; Walz MINI-PAM; Heinz Walz GmbH; 81) for A. saccharum and Q. rubra, for all treatments, and, additionally, for K. latifolia and V. alnifolium, for the 2° and higher-order vein severing treatments, 2–3 weeks after the treatments were applied (4–15 leaves from each treatment). E.g., banana, ginger, turmeric, Canna. In all tested species the high density and reticulation of 2° and higher-order veins provided these vein orders with complete damage tolerance. Leaf Identification: Many leaves can be identified by the pattern of their venation. 1). As for optimized irrigation systems (18, 19), the major veins act as high-capacity lateral-supply “mainlines” (20–23), with the total numbers and dimensions of xylem conduits determining conductance, regardless of major vein density (13, 24–26). However, palmately veined leaves with midribs severed near the leaf base showed minimal reduction of function in only the distal central lamina. The leaf schematics show the severed midrib in red and the first- and second-order veins in dark and light blue, respectively. Even in tropical floras, palmate venation tends to occur in pioneer species with relatively thin, large, short-lived leaves that also tend to be exposed to insect damage, high-evaporative loads, and potential leaf desiccation as juveniles (56). Although leaves can often survive midrib vein damage while remaining green and turgid (27), they may suffer reduced K analyzed data; and L.S. The decline of K To test the physiological impact of each treatment, we first analyzed data for given lamina locations for all species of each leaf type together by using repeated-measures ANOVAs (using GenStat 9th edition, VSN International; factors species × treatment; 87–89), comparing treatment with matched control leaves. Across species, tolerance of damage was directly proportional to the 1° vein density in the intact leaf, and to the percentage of major vein density remaining functional after the treatment (Fig. (e.g., ferm Adiantum, Circeaster) Types of Leaves: We found that palmately veined leaves tolerate midrib damage, as can be inflicted generally by insects in several orders, which have converged on this behavior as part of feeding (e.g., 29, 30, 33, 46). s = 0.14–0.39, P = 0.38–0.76; r The 1° vein(s) connect directly to the petiole, the 2° veins branch from the 1° vein(s), and the 3° veins are smaller in diameter, branching from and sometimes linking the 1° and 2° veins. leaf and E The reticulation of venation has been hypothesized to reduce the impact of disruption by providing transport around damaged veins (35, 36). p = 0.98; P < 0.001) but not the 1° vein density (SI Fig. See also. We made all measurements between 1000 and 1600 hours, alternating treated leaves with their matched controls. Leaf venation is a showcase of plant diversity, ranging from the grid-like network in grasses, to a wide variety of dendritic systems in other angiosperms. We made physiological measurements 2–9 weeks after the treatments, at which time the cuts had healed over. ), and not to the density of 2° veins, nor the combined density of 1° and 2° veins in the intact leaf (r Leaves with palmate veining are palmate ly lobed or … We applied treatments to five leaves on each of three plants for all species (except seven leaves of each of two trees for V. acerifolium) from June 19 to July 22, 2002. Learn more. leaf), the water potential drop across the leaf (ΔΨleaf), and K Sciences, Culinary Arts and Personal 2 p = 0.93–0.95, P = 0.004–0.008; n = 6). Redundancy in 1° veins, as provided by palmate venation, allows leaves to maintain g, K We applied four treatments, partially severing different portions of attached leaves, by using a scalpel or cork borer while supporting the leaf on a Styrofoam block. Leaf Venation There are two subtypes of venation, namely, craspedodromous , where the major veins stretch up to the margin of the leaf, and camptodromous , when major veins extend close to the margin, but bend before they intersect with the margin. We calculated K We do not capture any email address. The leaf venation system can influence leaf and whole-plant hydraulic conductance (K leaf and K plant respectively 7; the data were pooled for further analyses); neither treatment had a significant impact on g, E We made measurements at several lamina locations. leaf (supporting information (SI) Fig. Many leaves can be identified by the pattern of their venation. Species symbols: Ar, Acer rubrum; As, Acer saccharum; Ba, Betula alleghaniensis; Kl, Kalmia latifolia; Qr, Quercus rubra; Va, Viburnum acerifolium; and Vc, Viburnum cassanoides. By identifying leaves through these six classifications, herbalists and nature lovers alike can more accurately assess what type of plant they are looking at. This finding does not necessarily imply that minor venation is overbuilt hydraulically; in fact, the allocation cost should limit minor vein density to that required for hydraulic capacity (24, 27, 44). 3). The petiole is the leaf stalk that attaches the blade... Our experts can answer your tough homework and study questions. Leaves may be simple (a single leaf blade or lamina) or compound (with several leaflets).The edge of the leaf may be regular or irregular, may be smooth or … The general benefit provided by venation architecture would be important even against the background of complex plant responses. 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